Battery AND motor technology are changing rapidly. Lucid has cars capable of 500 mi range, however that is still extremely costly. So the capability is there, just need to bring the cost down. New battery chemistries and new types of motors are being developed to reduce the reliance on lithium and rare earth elements, so yes, within 5 years, things will improve and in 10 they will drastically change.\n\nHot swap batteries are another potential as it takes less than 10 minutes to swap and then you have a full charge. This is already in testing in Europe with the public and will likely become more common as it is easier to deploy than charging infrastructure. The "downside" to this is, you effectively lease the battery, you do not own it, but if it catches on, it will both minimize charging times and could eliminate range anxiety.\n\nI don't know about other places, but chargers are popping up everywhere around me. I also looked at the tax credit. I was under the impression that if I got a refund, I would not be able to claim the credit. I read it again and it says if you claim it and get a refund, they will add the tax credit to your refund.\n\n\nI'm a skeptic of the practicality of EVs for all.\n\nEven if you swap the batteries those batteries will have to be shipped to and from a charging center. You won't move those batteries with an electric semi. Then there is handling on both ends, with a complex infrastructure for swapping the batteries and you won't lift them.\n\nIn the UK last summer I did a long journey in a KIA EV. It had a long range. The ride however was horrible, due to a bad sprung to unsprung weight ratio.\n\nWe hoped to charge at out hotel in the cathedral city of Wells in the Mendip Hills of Somerset.\nThe hotel had some charging stations, but they were all taken. This hotel that is little changed in 300 years, would not adapt to adding more and in any event is a listed building, so you can't touch it. On the way back on the M4 there were gas stations with rows of charging points, but they were all occupied. Luckily we got home just with the battery almost exhausted at the end of its 350 mile range.\n\nThe next issue if off street parking. The City if Minneapolis has already stated that they will not allow on street charging. That will exclude a vast number of homes from owning EVs.\n\nIn the UK the situation is worse, where vast numbers of row houses have no ability to park anywhere except the street. It is already policy not to allow on street charging. So probably more than half the population would be excluded from owning an EV, which they want to mandate. If we are not careful this will incite revolution.\n\nSo, I think we do have to have a liquid fuel source. EVs are not the answer, and will meet massive resistance from large populations.\n\nThere is now talk in the UK about replacing the bulk of the housing stock.\n\nThis has come about as there are insulation standards being introduced for rented property, in addition to the charging issue.\nNow almost no UK homes are ducted and have hot water heat and no AC. Homes are being mandated to install heat pumps. The problem is that the UK is a damp climate. The lack of not being able to ventilate with the installation of heavy insulation, is causing a massive incidence of homes developing dangerous mold. So as I suspected UK homes need to be drafty!\n\nSo now landlords are claiming it will be cheaper to demolish and rebuild, than do the costly upgrades.\n\nIf you ask me this transition to net zero is going to take a hundred years at least.\n\nOne thing I am certain of is that we need more energy sources than just electricity. That won't fly. In any event losses of electricity in the distribution system are at least 30%. I bet they are higher from wind and solar farms.\n\nThe bottom line is that these government hopes and wishes are not being properly scaled or close to being thought through. Part of this is that as a whole we have a population almost totally ignorant on technical matters.