Hopefully one of the turntable gurus will see this thread and chime in. I'm sure that there are ways to troubleshoot this. I haven't used my turntable in well over a decade and haven't swapped out a cartridge in even longer, so I can't think of the steps to go through.
Sure, the turntable might not be working, or the cartridge, or the phono input on the receiver - but hopefully it's something relatively minor and easy to fix.
EDIT: By "I can hear music coming off the turntable...," are you talking about the sound coming from the surface of the record? That just means that the stylus is traveling through the grooves of the record - there could be an electrical disconnect anywhere between the stylus and the internals of the receiver to cause you to not get sound from the speakers.